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Lengthy-term monitoring of Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) destiny in stem cells at single cell degree.

Pixel-based colorimetry methodology revealed dynamic adjustments of intracellular PBNPs content material throughout cell interphase and mitosis.

Uneven cell inheritance (92.78%) is the primary issue contributing the intracellular PBNPs discount in a single cell cycle.


The evolution of nanotechnology offers impetus to the regenerative medication development, which has led to the good analysis curiosity in learning the interplay between stem cells and nanoparticles (NPs). The research of intracellular destiny of NPs is usually consisted of two points: the dynamic monitoring of NPs (NPs localization and transportation) and the quantification of intracellular NPs content material. Nonetheless, there’s a lack of instruments that would fulfill each necessities on the similar time. On this work, Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) had been chosen as mannequin probes to review the destiny of NPs in residing cells. By combining the stay cell imaging system with proposed quantification methodology (pixel-based colorimetry methodology), we realized a long-term monitoring and dynamic quantitation of PBNPs in residing stem cells on the single-cell degree. NPs destiny monitoring and quantitative evaluation have visualized the asymmetrical inheritance of PBNPs in two daughter cells throughout mitosis and the discount of PBNPs throughout interphase, which is especially attributed by lysosomal digestion. As demonstrated by our outcomes, we recognized three elements that contributed to the PBNPs load change inside one cell cycle: uneven cell inheritance (92.78%; 59.19% vs 33.59% in two cells), lysosomal digestion (6.93%), and exocytosis (0.29%). In abstract, this research offered detailed perception of NPs’ destiny in cell cycles which is important for rational design of NPs sooner or later.

Graphical Summary


Schematic illustration of long-term destiny monitoring and quantitative analyzing of Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) – labeled stem cells. Cells are first labeled with PBNPs, then dynamic adjustments (60 h) of PBNPs-labeled cells are recorded through the use of stay cell imaging system. Combining the proposed pixel-based colorimetry (PBC) quantification methodology and the investigation of PBNPs lysosomal digestion and exocytosis, the proportion of every issue that contribute to the discount of intracellular PBNPs content material inside one cell cycle are summarized.

Key phrases

Prussian blue nanoparticles

Stem cells

Intracellular discount

Quantification evaluation

Dwell cell imaging



Prussian blue nanoparticles


Human umbilical twine mesenchymal stem cells


Pixel-based colorimetry


Scanning electron microscope


Dynamic gentle scattering


Ultraviolet and visual spectrophotometry


Mesenchymal stem cells


Transmission electron microscope

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