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HomeElectronicsPhoto voltaic Irrigation System: A Complete Information

Photo voltaic Irrigation System: A Complete Information


This text describes the completely different elements of photo voltaic irrigation programs, numerous specs, completely different methods used, the present state of affairs in India, the challenges confronted by customers, and the longer term scope of solar-powered irrigation programs.

Photo voltaic-powered water pumping programs can discover software on the town water provide, livestock watering, and irrigation. The solar-powered irrigation system is an software of a solar-powered water pumping system utilized in paddy fields, and gardens for watering crops, greens, and so on. A typical instance of a solar-powered irrigation system is proven in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1: A typical solar-powered irrigation system (Courtesy: www.taiyosolar.in)

Some Benefits of a Typical Photo voltaic Irrigation System

1. It makes irrigation attainable in distant areas
2. Is surroundings pleasant
3. No grid connection is required
4. No electrical energy payments to be paid
5. No gasoline is required
6. Is sturdy, requiring minimal upkeep

Important Elements

The precise elements and {hardware} necessities rely upon the kind of irrigation system, such as-

Floor irrigation, wherein water is moved throughout the floor of agricultural lands.

Localized irrigation, like spray or drip or trickle system the place water is utilized to every plant or adjoining to it.

Sprinkler irrigation, wherein water is piped to a number of central places inside the subject and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or weapons.

The main elements of a typical solar-powered pumping system embody a photo voltaic panel array that powers a bore-well pump or floor pump. The dimensions of the entire system depends on the scale of the pump, the quantity of water required per day, and the facility accessible from the photo voltaic panels.

The water is usually pumped from a borewell or stream right into a storage tank or straight into the sphere.

The solar-powered irrigation system has three most important elements:

  1. Motor pump
  2. Pump controller
  3. Photo voltaic panel

Motor Pump

The pump has a motor working on electrical energy generated by the photo voltaic panel. Relying on the kind of motor (AC or DC), the voltage of the photo voltaic pump motor might be AC or DC. DC motors are principally used for small to medium functions, resembling backyard fountains, landscaping, consuming water for livestock, or small irrigation tasks. Most DC pumps run at 24 volts quite than 12 volts.

Nonetheless, smaller programs for 12 volts do exist for light-duty functions, whereas programs working on 48 volts additionally exist for heavier functions. The ability of a motor is laid out in both watts or horsepower (HP).

Pump Controller

There are two sorts of pump controllers: inverter and variable frequency drive (VFD). If an AC photo voltaic pump is used, an inverter turns into needed to vary the DC from the photo voltaic panels into AC. The supported energy vary of a typical inverter extends from 0.15kW to 55kW, with the upper energy inverter getting used for bigger irrigation programs.

The photo voltaic panel and inverter have to be sized accordingly to accommodate the inrush attribute of an AC motor. Because the AC pump requires excessive energy initially, the inverter ought to have the ability to deal with this further start-up load. Generally a VFD controller is used to make sure that the pump motor will get correct voltage and present. Some typical specs for numerous AC pumps and pump controllers are listed in Desk I.

Pump Controller Specification
Pump Controller Specification

Many photo voltaic DC pumps require a particular controller if they’re to be powered straight by PV modules (with out batteries). The controller or linear present booster (most energy level tracker) allows the pump to start out and run in low mild circumstances throughout a cloudy day, or early morning and night. With a battery energy supply, the controller is probably not required in any respect for a DC pump.

A particular controller might also be employed for changing 12-volt battery energy to the next voltage to run the pump at prime velocity. The DC pumps can be found from 12V to 48V with their preliminary torque various from 12A to 96A. Typical specs of assorted DC pumps and cost controllers accessible from a vendor are listed in Desk II for instance.

DC Pump Controller
Desk of DC Pump Controller Specs

Photo voltaic Panel

The pumps are fitted with motors that obtain power from photo voltaic PV arrays. The nominal energy of a photo voltaic module is expressed in peak wattage (Wp). The wattage of photo voltaic panels is determined by the requirement and the motors used. In India, photo voltaic PV arrays having a capability within the vary of 200W to 5kWp are advisable by the federal government.

Advisable: Photo voltaic Panel Specs

Many distributors provide set up providers at a value. However in case you are planning to put in it your self, you possibly can confer with many reside video clips accessible on the Web.

You possibly can examine the Photo voltaic Panel Set up Information.

Sorts of Motor Pumps

Photo voltaic pumps fall into two main classes, floor, and submersible, relying on their development and functions.

Floor Pump

A floor pump is normally put in above the water stage which requires a suction elevate. It’s used to get discharge from an open effectively, pond or river the place excessive move and small head (top to which the water must be lifted to) are required. There are various several types of pumps accessible, and DC floor pumps with whole elevate as much as 21m (70 ft) are simply accessible in India.

Submersible Pump

This pump is principally a hermetically sealed motor. The entire meeting of the submersible pump is submerged within the water to be pumped up. It’s usually used for pumping water from small borewells and is designed to suit contained in the drilled bore. The effectively could also be wherever from a number of meters to 550 meters deep.

However the deeper the effectively, the extra highly effective and costly could be the system. The 0.25HP to 3HP pumps are simply accessible available in the market. DC submersible pumps with a complete elevate of as much as 92m are fairly widespread in India.

Submersible pumps have the flexibility to elevate water to a better top. So these pumps are additionally used for water switch functions from a canal to storage tanks or from an underground storage tank to an overhead tank.

How you can Choose the Proper Pump?

Earlier than shopping for a pump you need to know the depth at which water is accessible, the each day water requirement, and the kind of irrigation system to be put in. You might also must know the water move price and the entire head of the pump. You can purchase a pump having the perfect effectivity. The very best mixture of head and move price at least power consumption offers the perfect pump effectivity.

The efficiency graph of a 1.5HP motor pump accessible from a vendor is proven in Fig. 3 for instance. To interpret the graph and the desk, allow us to say you’ve an enter energy of 400 watts from the PV array and also you need to elevate the water to a top of 40 meters at a move price of 12 liters per minute. As per Fig. 3, you would want a 1.5HP pump-set with the strain of 56.88psi or 392 kilopascals (392kPa).

1.5HP motor pump performance
Fig. 3: 1.5HP motor pump efficiency

The subsequent step is to determine whether or not you need to go for an AC pump or a DC pump. Although a DC pump might be run straight from a photo voltaic PV array, it has a really restricted vary as in comparison with an AC pump.

The DC pump prices greater than the AC pump with the identical class and the identical head. But when a DC pump is accessible in your native market that meets your requirement, it may be price shopping for.

“One can buy an AC submersible pump as a result of the upkeep for submersible is sort of nil as in comparison with a DC pump,” says Hitesh Kapuriya, assistant supervisor, JJ PV Photo voltaic Pvt Ltd.

Indian producers of pump units for numerous functions might be discovered at http://www.pumpsindia web site. The kind of motor pump, the wattage of the photo voltaic module, equipment, and so on are a number of the choices it’s a must to make.

So earlier than shopping for the system you need to examine the next:

  1. Photo voltaic water pump set up website. It is best to first examine whether or not it’s to be put in close to a pond, river, effectively, or someplace else.
  2. Pump setting depth. The equipment required for underground set up could be completely different and add to the general value.
  3. Requirement of each day water. For those who want extra water per day, you want heavier and extra highly effective gear.
  4. AC or DC pump. For an AC pump, you want a photo voltaic panel, pump controller (inverter), module mounting meeting, and equipment like cables, connectors, and pipe. For the DC pump, a pump controller wouldn’t be required in case of direct reference to the PV panel.

As well as, it’s possible you’ll contemplate putting in photo voltaic trackers and pump safety models. The whole system ought to be examined and licensed by a licensed take a look at heart to get the perfect efficiency and water discharge norms as specified by the ministry.

Varied capacities of DC floor and AC submersible pumps accessible from a vendor are listed in Desk III, simply on your info.

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Present State of affairs of Photo voltaic Irrigation System in India

Almost 60% of Indians work as farmers within the subject of agriculture. However because of the non-availability of electrical energy in distant areas, irrigation turns into troublesome even when the land is fertile because it relies upon majorly on rainfall solely. Photo voltaic power can save not solely electrical energy but additionally save Indian farmers (throughout drought and scanty rainfall) who’re in any other case vulnerable to suicide.

Photo voltaic water pumping programs could make irrigation attainable even in distant areas. The pumps can be found for numerous sorts of irrigation, together with paddy fields, horticulture farms, gardens, and so on.

“The current scope of photo voltaic irrigation system in India is excellent as a result of there may be help from nodal companies within the states like Rajasthan, Bihar, and so on. The Ministry of New and Renewable Power, Authorities of India, offers 30 p.c subsidy for a 5 horsepower photo voltaic water pump set,” says Hitesh.

Sadly, the “Common value of the photo voltaic water pumping system is Rs 450,000. Authorities coverage for subsidy is having restriction as much as 5HP photo voltaic pump solely,” provides Hitesh.

Apart from the excessive value of photo voltaic irrigation programs at current, one other drawback is the ignorance of the advantages amongst farmers and customers.

Photo voltaic Irrigation System – Future Scope

With developments in know-how, the programs might be made extra user-friendly. You possibly can management the motor pump from a distant location utilizing your cell phone. You may get water stage indication of the reservoir and overhead storage tank in your cell phone. These applied sciences are already accessible available in the market, although presently they aren’t so widespread.

For additional info on this topic, it’s possible you’ll confer with the ‘Irrigation Automation Alternatives in Rural Areas’ article printed in January 2012 problem. Additionally, it’s possible you’ll confer with DIY articles on associated matters, resembling ‘Cellphone-Primarily based Distant Controller for Water Pump’ printed in January 2013 and ‘GSM-Primarily based Borewell Water-Stage Monitor’ printed in Might 2012 points.


The writer is a B.Tech (electronics & communication) from Punjab Technical College

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