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Seaweed Derived NPs Loaded with Delicate Bioagents

As a result of their distinct options, nanomaterials are explored as supply techniques for bioactive brokers. In an article lately printed within the journal Carbohydrate Polymers, researchers designed D-limonene- κ-carrageenan nanoparticles (DL-κC NPs) by a one-step course of. These nanoparticles launched the bioactive DL in a pH-dependent method in vitro

Electrosprayed Seaweed Derived Nanoparticles Loaded with Sensitive Bioagents

Research: Encapsulation of bioactives inside electrosprayed κ-carrageenan nanoparticles. Picture Credit score: Love Worker/

Rising the κC focus promoted the photograph/thermal stability of DL. In NPs with 0.5% κC, over 85% of unique DL was preserved by exposing the NPs to ultraviolet (UV) gentle for 120 minutes. By this work, the researchers demonstrated the effectivity of electrosprayed κC NPs in designing high-loaded, pH-sensitive NPs to encapsulate delicate bioactive brokers.

Organic Significance of DL and κC

DL is a monocyclic monoterpene, primarily present in citrus important oil. Regardless of its advantages to human well being, the biomedical software of DL was restricted resulting from its hydrophobicity, oxidative susceptibility, excessive reactivity, and excessive volatility.

Encapsulating DL molecules can overcome these challenges. As a result of their distinct options like larger surface-area-to-volume ratio, solubility, entrapment effectivity, and bioavailability, nanocarriers can be utilized for encapsulating potent drug molecules.

Electrospraying is a low-cost nanoencapsulation approach that permits the preparation of nanoparticles for drug or bioactive supply. It includes the engineering of nanosized particles from polymeric suspensions, options or emulsions utilized by conductive spinneret by making use of excessive voltage.

κC is a water-soluble polysaccharide obtained from Rhodophyta (crimson seaweed). It’s a unhazardous and biodegradable macroion with glorious solubility in aqueous solvents. Moreover, κC has biomedical purposes with anti-tumor, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-coagulant, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-viral properties, making it a potent service matrix for medicine or bioactive supply.

κC-based constructions are investigated for meals and pharmaceutical purposes, together with drug supply, meals packaging, tissue engineering, and wound therapeutic. Meals-grade κC is unhazardous and steady within the intestine.

Earlier reviews present that κC is noncytotoxic and displays excessive cell viability towards human adipose-derived stem cells with out crimson blood cell (RBC) hemolytic exercise in people. These properties make κC electrosprayed nanoparticles (NPs) promising candidates for encapsulating bioactive molecules.


Within the current research, the researchers developed DL-loaded electrosprayed κC NPs, with superior entrapment capability, excessive photograph/thermal stability, and managed launch of the bioactive agent. A easy emulsion electrospraying approach was employed to synthesize biostable κC NPs to make the most of them as autos for DL.

The researchers analyzed the viscosity and circulation habits of emulsions and noticed that the emulsions with concentrations of 0.3% κC and 5 or 10% DL exhibited Newtonian circulation habits, and the circulation habits indexes had been 0.992 (for five% DL) and 0.951 (for 10% DL).

Insufficient overlaying of DL droplets by emulsifier and κC resulted in destabilization within the emulsion. Consequently, rising the DL focus from 5 to 10% in emulsion resulted in a rise in consistency index from 1.13 to 2.19 millipascal second.

The consistency index of the emulsions with 0.5% κC at 5 or 10% of DL was larger than these with 0.1% κC. Moreover, a pointy lower in viscosity was present in emulsions with 0.1% κC on making use of low shear charges of 10-second inverse. Moreover, larger shear charges of as much as 100-second inverse resulted in an extended Newtonian plateau.

The circulation habits index of κC0.5-DL5 (0.5% κC, 5% DL) and κC0.5-DL10 (0.5% κC, 10% DL) had been 0.942 and 0.903, respectively. The above findings revealed that the emulsion mixtures had been stabilized by 0.5% κC, and the emulsion’s rheological traits had been much like that of Newtonian fluids.

Emulsions ready with 0.7% κC confirmed a shear-thinning rheological habits, the place the viscosity of the emulsions trusted utilized shear charges. The circulation habits index values dropped to 0.81 and 0.77 for κC0.7-DL5 (0.7% κC, 5% DL) and κC0.7-DL10 (0.7% κC, 10% DL), respectively.

SEM was employed to find out the scale and morphology of the electrosprayed NPs. The molecular chain rigidity and decrease molecular weight led to inadequate entanglement of molecular chains in emulsions with 0.3% (w/w) κC resolution. Thus, κC0.3-DL5 or κC0.3-DL10 (0.3% κC, 5 or 10% DL) emulsion samples didn’t type a polymer jet for electrospraying the particles.

SEM photos of κC0.5-DL5 NPs (0.5% κC, 5% DL) confirmed homogenous particle construction with spherical or icosahedral morphology and a diameter between 70 to 150 nanometers. These NPs confirmed uniform dispersion with out aggregation.

The κC0.5-DL10 NPs (0.5% κC, 10% DL) confirmed bigger particle sizes with diameters between 95 to 330 nanometers. The rise in DL focus decreased {the electrical} conductivity (EC) and zeta potential of emulsion, resulting in a low electrical discipline for the jet circulation into bigger particles throughout electrospraying.


To summarize, the researchers ready biopolymer-based supply techniques by electrospraying κC NPs as nanocarriers for DL. They demonstrated that the structural and physicochemical properties of the engineered NPs had been affected by preliminary emulsions. The next focus of κC and decrease fractions of DL improved the photograph/thermostability of the NPs.

The entanglement within the polymer chain, the resultant viscosity, and the feed emulsion’s floor cost decided the morphology of DL-κC NPs. The proportion of DL/κC within the emulsions modifications the discharge properties and stability of NPs.

Optimizing the concentrations of κC to DL might result in the event of spherical capsules with homogenous distribution through an electrospraying strategy. Moreover, the discharge of bioactives from the spherical capsules is pH managed.


Niloofar Fani, M.H. Enayati, Hadis Rostamabadi, Seid Reza Falsafi (2022). Encapsulation of bioactives inside electrosprayed κ-carrageenan nanoparticles. Carbohydrate Polymers.

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