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Tremendous Capacitors for Atmanirbhar and Swachh Bharat


Remark errors or corrections discovered for this circuit, and get the possibility to win massive!

Photo voltaic Photovoltaic vitality is offered all through the day whereas the Solar shines. Nevertheless, this vitality is very fluctuating in nature. Additionally, lighting is especially required throughout evening when photo voltaic vitality will not be out there. Due to this fact, there’s a want for vitality storage gadgets. The apparent selection is Lithium-ion battery. Despite the fact that Li-ion battery is the best choice, there are some limitations:

  1. Price of Li-ion Battery is rising 12 months after 12 months. Therefore, these batteries can be primarily used for automobiles and mobiles. For stationary functions now we have to seek out options.

  2. Li-ion Batteries can deal with few thousand cost/discharge cycles. This means the battery must be changed after about 5 years

  3. Re-cycling of Li-ion batteries is difficult and costly.

  4. India doesn’t have Lithium mines. We’re fully depending on imports. Therefore it turns into crucial to discover different gadgets for vitality storage.

  5. Li-ion Batteries additionally use different metals corresponding to Nickle and Cobalt and many others. Due to this fact, these batteries will not be surroundings pleasant. Lot of mining is required to get these metals.

Proposed Various

Right here we’ll discover use of Supercapacitors for vitality storage for low energy however widespread functions. Supercapacitors (or Extremely Capacitors) are additionally known as as Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors. They use porous carbon electrodes and retailer vitality within the type of electrical area. In contrast to batteries which retailer vitality in electrochemical type. These provide very massive values of capacitance, measured in Farads. Typical working voltage of those capacitors is low (2.7 V). Following are their benefits:

  1. May be charged and discharged 100,000 instances with out shedding storage capability. Therefore, they’ve lengthy lifetime of > 15 years.

  2. Quick charging and discharging

  3. Safer than batteries

  4. Use simply out there uncooked supplies (eg carbon), therefore surroundings pleasant. No dependency on imports for costly uncooked supplies.

  5. Straightforward to recycle

Limitations:

  1. Low particular vitality and decrease working voltage

  2. Linear discharge voltage

  3. Barely greater self-discharge

  4. Larger price. A 500 F capacitor presently prices about Rs 400 and 100 F capacitor prices about 175 rupees.

As of at the moment, the price of supercapacitors is considerably greater. Only for storing few Watt-Hours of vitality now we have to make use of a number of capacitors. Therefore the price of even small low energy techniques is pretty excessive. Some solutions are given beneath for lowering the associated fee:

  • Mass Manufacturing: As mentioned earlier, supercapacitors don’t want costly uncooked materials. So, the excessive price may be primarily attributed to low volumes of manufacturing. Due to this fact, there’s a have to determine many functions which may generate massive demand. Because the manufacturing scales up, routinely the manufacturing price will come down.

  • Redesign for gradual cost/ discharge functions: Most supercapacitors out there available in the market are designed for dealing with excessive (in amps) cost/ discharge currents. Due to this fact, these Supercapacitors have thick terminals and huge electrodes. Nevertheless, in small photo voltaic functions the capacitor cost/ discharge currents are low (in milliamps). Therefore, for such functions capacitor design may be optimized to cut back price and dimension.

  • Larger worth of capacitance for a given dimension and price: By optimizing capacitor design for decrease present functions, it might be doable to get greater capacitance in the identical dimension and price. This may enhance the vitality storage capability for given dimension and price.

  • A lot of the Supercapacitors out there available in the market are imported. Stimulating the demand will entice Indian corporations for native manufacture. The price of regionally produced capacitors can be a lot decrease.

  • Authorities Subsidy to the producers: Corporations who wish to manufacture supercapacitors, our authorities ought to present some monetary help for organising manufacturing strains and for getting the newest design understand how from established producers.

Supercapacitor primarily based Clock:

This is likely one of the greatest suited functions. Wall clocks want very low energy. Wall clocks use one AA major battery per 12 months. Each home has few such clocks. So, we’re consuming large variety of batteries yearly containing hazardous chemical substances. Additional, these batteries will not be correctly disposed, therefore pose massive risk to the surroundings and well being. Right here, clock energy provide design is proposed which makes use of photo voltaic vitality and Supercapacitors. The intention right here is to run the clock nonstop for a minimum of 15 years beneath all climate circumstances. This may get rid of using 15 AA cells and scale back hazardous chemical waste.

Design particulars:

Determine 1 reveals the circuit diagram of proposed energy provide. It consists of two small photo voltaic panels PV1 and PV2. Following are the specs of those panels:

  • Voltage at most energy = Vmp = 5 V (Relies upon upon daylight depth)
  • Present at most energy = Imp = 100 mA
  • Open circuit voltage = Voc = 6 V
  • Measurement = 70 mm X 70 mm
Circuit diagram of wall clock power supply using solar PV and Supercapacitor
Fig.1: Circuit diagram of wall clock energy provide utilizing photo voltaic PV and Supercapacitor

These panels are related in parallel utilizing two diodes D1 and D2 (1N5819). These Schottky diodes block present from one panel getting into the opposite panel. The panel output voltage Vpv is fed to the Supercapacitor C1 (100F 2.7V) by present limiting resistor R1 (330Ω 1W). Voltage regulator IC1 (TL431) is related throughout C1. It regulates the capacitor voltage to 2.5 V. IC1 ensures that the capacitor voltage by no means exceeds rated voltage of two.7 V. Word that, diodes D1 and D2 additionally cease C1 from discharging into the panels, when there isn’t a daylight.

The output of capacitor C1 is related to the clock terminals by present limiting resistor R2 (220Ω). Throughout these terminals three diodes D2, D3 and D4 (1N4007) are related in sequence.

Complete Ahead voltage of D2, D3, D4 = 0.65 X 3 = 1.95 V

The clock motion operates within the vary from 2 V all the way down to 1V. Thus, the three diodes restrict the voltage Vclock to lower than 2V. C2 is used to cut back voltage dip each time the motion attracts pulse present. Fig 2 reveals the assembled PCB.

The working of the above circuit can be clearer after numerous waveforms proven in Figs 3, 4 and 5.

Voltage Waveforms
Fig. 3: Voltage Waveforms (Take a look at Situations: R2 = 100Ω; C2 not mounted) CH1 (Yellow Hint) -> Capacitor voltage (C1); CH2 (Blue Hint) -> Voltage +Vclock M (Purple Hint) -> Ch1 – Ch2
Voltage Waveforms Expanded
Fig. 4: Voltage Waveforms Expanded (Take a look at Situations: R2 = 100Ω; C2 not mounted) CH1 (Yellow Hint) -> Capacitor voltage (C1); CH2 (Blue Hint) -> Voltage +Vclock M (Purple Hint) -> Ch1 – Ch2

Determine 3 reveals capacitor voltage (C1) and +Vclock voltage. These waveforms have been captured with out mounting the filter capacitor C2. Additionally, worth of resistor R2 was modified to 100Ω. As seen within the determine, the capacitor voltage is secure at 1.99 V. We see dip in +Vclock voltage each second when the clock motion attracts pulse present. Utilizing math perform of the oscilloscope, hint M (purple) has been plotted which provides distinction between Ch1 and Ch2. This waveform is the voltage throughout R2. Determine 4 reveals the identical waveform expanded.

From the purple hint of Fig 4 we will calculate present by R2.

  • Regular present by R2 and D3, D4, D5 = 0.2 V/ 100Ω = 2 mA
  • Common pulse present = 0.6V / 100Ω = 6 mA
  • Precise pulse present drawn by the clock motion = 6 – 2 = 4 mA
  • Pulse length = 30 msec
  • Common present drawn by clock motion = 4 mA * 30 msec / 1000 msec = 0.12 mA.
  • Common Energy drawn by the clock motion = 0.12 * 1.71 = 0.2 mW
  • Power Consumed throughout 24 hours = 0.2 mW * 24 = 4.8 mWh
  • Power saved within the capacitor = 0.5 * C1 * V * V = 0.5 * 100 * 1.99 * 1.99 = 198 joules
  • Power saved = (198 / 3600) * 1000 = 55 mWh

From above calculations it’s seen that, now we have virtually 11 instances vitality out there within the capacitors on per day foundation (beneath splendid circumstances). Nevertheless, there are self-discharge loss within the capacitor and losses in R2 and Diodes and residual voltage within the capacitor. Contemplating all of the losses we will safely assume that the saved energy within the capacitor can be enough for about 2 or 3 days. This issue helps in continuous operating of clock on wet days when the daylight could be very much less.

Determine 5 reveals the filtered voltage waveform +Vclock. With C2 (4700 µF) related on the output, the heartbeat peak voltage drops to lower than 200 mV. Additionally, the worth of resistance has been elevated to 220Ω to cut back present by the diodes. These waveforms have been captured when the C1 voltage was 1.08 V. Thus, it’s clear that the clock works all the way down to 1 V.

Filtered Voltage Waveforms
Fig. 5: Filtered Voltage Waveforms (Take a look at Situations: R2 = 220Ω; C2 mounted) CH1 (Yellow Hint) -> Capacitor voltage (C1); CH2 (Blue Hint) -> Voltage +Vclock M (Purple Hint) -> Ch1 – Ch2

Interface:

Determine 6 reveals proposed AA dimension dummy cell made out of plastic materials. It has metallic +ve and -ve terminals. Two wires are related to those terminals and introduced out by the holes supplied. These wires are related to +Vclock and -Vclock. Person can merely insert this dummy cell within the clock second.

Dummy cell with interconnecting wires for quickly connecting to the clock
Fig. 6: Dummy cell with interconnecting wires for shortly connecting to the clock

Utilization of the system:

Wall clocks are mounted contained in the buildings therefore they don’t obtain direct daylight. Due to this fact, two PV panels have been used in order that the circuit works on the subtle ambient gentle out there contained in the rooms. There is no such thing as a have to mount the panels within the direct daylight. The panels might be mounted on the identical wall on which the clock is current. We now have to make sure that all through the day, the panels get good ambient gentle. If this gentle will not be enough then we will mount the panels close to the home windows the place gentle depth is greater. Two PV panels additionally be certain that throughout wet season the circuit works correctly. {Photograph} of built-in system is proven in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7: {Photograph} of system displaying PV panels and clock interconnections

Fig.7 {Photograph} of system displaying PV panels and clock interconnections.

Costing:

Assuming one cell is required per 12 months, in 15 years of lifespan, we spend about 150 rupees on these cells.

The price of proposed system is given beneath:

  • Supercapacitor 100 F 2.7 V Rs 175
  • Two 6V PV panels Rs 110
  • PCB and small elements Rs 35
  • Complete Rs 320

Word: These costs are for MOQ of fifty items. For one or two portions costs could also be a lot greater.

Thus, we see that the price of proposed circuit is sort of double as in contrast with the cash we spend on batteries. We now have to think about few extra factors relating to price comparability that are as follows:

  1. The lifetime of PV panels is 30 years. Therefore, now we have to think about solely half of it’s price. As it may be reused for one more 15 years together with one other clock.

  2. As of at the moment, the manufacturing quantity of supercapacitors is low, therefore its price is greater. If the manufacturing quantity will increase by many folds the associated fee will come down considerably.

  3. Through the use of the proposed circuit, we’re eliminating the battery hazardous waste which in any other case goes into landfill. This poses risk to surroundings and well being. We now have to issue this surroundings price in favor of the proposed design.

  4. Supercapacitors don’t require imported materials. It principally makes use of carbon; therefore it should present vitality independence for our nation.

  5. Use of proposed circuit additionally eliminates the effort of changing the batteries. This can be a major benefit for corporates, as they’ll scale back the manpower and wish for maintaining inventory of batteries.

Optimization:

If there may be some place contained in the room, the place direct daylight is offered for few hours then it might be doable to take away one PV panel. With direct daylight, single panel can totally cost the capacitor shortly. This may assist in lowering the associated fee to some extent. This may want long run testing in all seasons to make sure nonstop operation.

Energy provide design for a number of clocks

In lots of corporations there are a number of clocks mounted on the identical wall. These clocks are used to point out native time from totally different international locations. Additionally, in wall clock showrooms, outlets and restore outlets there are a number of clocks operating on particular person batteries. Due to this fact, massive variety of cells are consumed in these outlets. For such functions a single energy provide is designed which may cater to many clocks. On this case, the price of the circuit will get divided amongst all of the clocks and the general price of the circuit comes down.

Circuit design for 5 clocks:

Determine 8 reveals the circuit diagram of energy provide which caters to 5 clocks.

Circuit diagram of wall clock power supply for running five clocks
Fig. 8: Circuit diagram of wall clock energy provide for operating 5 clocks

This design consists of two varieties of items. One storage unit and 5 filter items for 5 clocks. A 6V 3W photo voltaic PV panel is related to the storage unit. Storage unit consists of a 500 F capacitor which is charged by diode D10 (1N5819) and resistor R10 (68 Ω 2W). Regulator IC10 (TL431) clamps the capacitor voltage to 2.5V. This regulator is rated for 100 mA present. Therefore, further Zener diodes DZ1 and DZ2 (2.5V 1W) are related in parallel with the IC10. These Zener diodes can deal with extra present.

Filter Items 1 to five need to be mounted very close to to their respective clocks. The filter unit consists of filter capacitor of 4700 µF (C11 to C15, one for every filter unit). Additionally, every filter unit has three 1N4007 diodes related in sequence (D11 to D25). The outputs of 5 filter items are related to 5 totally different clocks.

The PV panel is mounted on a roof high or in a spot the place there may be good sunshine. The storage unit is positioned in a location contained in the constructing, the place the cable from PV panel comes contained in the constructing. From storage unit, by present limiting resistors R11 to R15 skinny cables are related to the respective filter items. These wire lengths might be few tens of ft lengthy. The capacitor within the filter unit will compensate for the cable inductance. In Fig 8, purple wires join R11 to filter unit 1. Equally, blue wires join R15 to filter unit 5.

Costing:

Costing for this design is given beneath:

  • Supercapacitor 500 F 2.7 V Rs 400
  • 6V 3W PV panel Rs 400
  • PCB and small elements Rs 200
  • Complete Rs 1000

The associated fee per clock is 1000 / 5 = 200 rupees. Thus, we will say that a number of clock design will present higher price benefit. Thus, it may be carried out by all store keepers in order that demand for supercapacitors will get a lift.

Conclusion

Above design demonstrates use of supercapacitors for storing small quantity of vitality. As crores of clocks are getting used, it affords massive potential for lowering using chemical batteries. This may assist in lowering hazardous waste. Additionally, it should generate demand for crores of supercapacitors. Many fold enhance in manufacturing quantity of those capacitors will deliver down the associated fee. It should open up many different areas the place these capacitors might be used for vitality storage. Cut back dependence on imported Lithium and different pricey metals. Every home will generate small quantity of solar energy and it’s cumulative impact can be important. Want of the hour is to determine many extra such functions.

Supercapacitors can contribute in direction of making Atmanirbhar and Swachh Bharat.


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